The Mage's Association (魔術協会, Majutsu Kyōkai?) is an international, self-preservative and self-defense organization formed by practitioners of magecraft for the purpose of controlling, concealing, and developing Magecraft. It is said to transcend nationality and genre of magecraft, but that is in name only. After having existed for many years, it was decided around the Middle Ages by those who foresaw the decline of Magecraft that in order to preserve their power Thaumaturgy should drift apart from society and become a secret known only by a necessary minimum number of people.
It has many laboratories and research bodies that seek to advance the progress of Thaumaturgy, as well as institutions that transmit their secrets to the next generation. Although the emphasis lies on the pursuit of knowledge, the Association also seeks to increase its own military strength and reserves the use of force to protect itself from entities that threaten its existence, such as the Holy Church, other mage organizations, supernatural forces seeking to punish mankind for meddling with areas that should not be touched, and individuals who hunt what which they consider taboo. Like the developing of a Reality Marble or for researching into vampirism.
The Association has set up research institutions and established and enforces laws that forbid the criminal use of magecraft in order to promote the development, or perhaps regression, of magecraft. The Association is mainly concerned with the preservation and concealment of Magecraft in criminal aspects. They do not care about hideous crimes committed by magi so long as they are not a threat that might reveal the existence of Thaumaturgy to the common public.
The Mage’s Association is divided into three main branches: Clock Tower, Atlas and the Sea of Estray. Ever since Clock Tower became the official headquarters, the Three Great Branches as they are called started to drift apart from each other.
Many systems to rank their members exist within the Association. One of them is seven-rank system that serves to grade one’s capacities as a Magus. The top rank is called Grand. Mature Magi without any outstanding powers such as Lord El-Melloi II are around the 4th rank, while complete amateurs and students that just started learning such as Ayaka Sajyou belong the 7th bottom rank. Touko Aozaki rose to the rank of Master (not the Heaven’s Feel ones) when she was 20 years old, while Satsuki Kurogiri of Atlas was the youngest to achieve the same feat at 15 years old. Magi with extraordinary powers receive titles according to a color system and those who receive one of the three primary colors (Red, Blue and Yellow) are acknowledged as being among the greatest of their time. It follows with the secondary colors Orange, Purple, Green and Black. The further down you go, the less your rank is. Note that there is no rule about only one person for each color. The Association will, without any stinginess, award a color to you if you’re a magus of great stature or one with an unusual talent. Finally, the Noble Colors system is used for the classification of special abilities related to Magecraft, such as Mystic Eyes.
As long as he/she does not possess a Sealing Designation, a Magus may leave the Association at any time without facing any restrictions. However, this is rarely done, since the Association provides its members with great amount of resources, stored knowledge and other benefits. And so many Mages from all over the world gather and devote themselves day and night to the study of Magic, while at the same time, are busily tripping over and being tripped over by other factions and competing for power and budget. The organization is anything but harmonious and has a complicated bizarre structure, but the magical research there is without doubt the leading edge. Despite its academia facet, the Magi of the Association rarely share the result of their own researches between each other.
|Grand (冠位, ?)||Touko Aozaki|
Darnic Prestone Yggdmillennia
|Brand (色位, ?)||Kayneth El-Melloi Archibald|
|Pride (典位, ?)|
|Fes (祭位, ?)||Lord El-Melloi II|
|Cause (開位, ?)|
|Count (長子, ?)|
|Frame (末子, ?)||Ayaka Sajyou|
The Mage’s Association and the Holy Church have a non-aggression agreement between each other for quite a while now, but armed conflict still happen often in a off-the-records fashion. Atlas however, is case in itself.
The Association has deemed the Magic Foundation of the Middle East and the philosophies of magecraft from the Far East incompatible with its teachings, and both schools conversely reject the Association. It has been working towards at least building a stance of neutrality between them. The mage organizations of Japan also did not join the Association.
The Three Great BranchesEdit
The Clock Tower (時計塔, tokeitō?) is currently the headquarters and main branch of the Mage’s Association, the departments that compose it as well as the workshops of its members (which are mainly underground facilities) are located in the British Museum. It is only a venerable museum to normal people of course, but at the deepest part, there is a special area called the “Bottom of the Bridge” where the Association confines many sealing designated magi deemed to be “dangerous because their talents were too outstanding.” Also, apparently the Gazamy the “Evil Spook”, treated as the number one disaster in the Association, is locked up at the bottom of the London tower. However, some affiliated buildings and institutions are known to be located elsewhere. An example of those would be the Norwich Student Dormitory, where the first meeting between Luviagelita and Rin took place. The receptionist Octavia Leyland recounts the fight that resulted in this particular case as the worst incident in the story of the building.
From the outside, Clock Tower appears to be an appealing and welcoming place, but the truth is not so bright. Actually, the inner workings of the place are ruled by the power struggles between several factions of Magi. In Heaven's Feel True Ending, Rin described her trial in London as being more a parade than anything else: although it had over 300 participants, the majority of them were Magi who wanted to gain favor with the higher ranks.
Clock Tower is currently under the control of a pseudo-aristocratic elite called the Lords. Each Lord holds great political power within the Association just by himself, and there is also those who associate themselves to other talented Magi or an important Magi lineage in a sponsor-sponsored relationship so to increase their influence.
Maybe due this elitist background, preconceived and discriminatory behavior is somewhat widespread inside Clock Tower. Rune and Witchcraft Thaumaturgy are not very popular in the main branch, the latter not being taught as an academia at all. The Enforcers are looked down upon by the upper ranks. Discrimination against Asians is common, which might be a factor on why so few of them are members of the Association.
Admission of new members also involves exams to test one’s knowledge of Magecraft, but is possible to bypass this through letters of recommendation or if one is the successor of a distinct lineage of magi. Said “outstanding” individuals receive special treatment such as individual rooms in the dormitory or the right to bring along a couple of apprentices. The apprentices won’t have to pay for enrollment or go through the examinations themselves, but they won’t be seen as members of the Association either. The organization handling patents relating to magic is also the Clock Tower, and the current finances of the Tohsaka family is being by covered by the patent royalties that are being transferred to their account.
The Clock Tower has three major factions:
- Barthomeloi - Aristocratism faction.
- Toranbelio (トランベリオ, ?) - Democracy faction
- Meluastella (メルアステア, ?) - Neutral faction
The street was made of bricks and stone. The buildings from the 12th Century were well-preserved, creating a juxtaposition of the Medieval and the modern. The town consisted of over 40 student dormitories (called Colleges), over a hundred research buildings, as well as the business districts that supplied the residents. This was the birthplace of the Magic Association; the center of the modern world of magecraft; the Mecca of mages.
The Clock Tower divided the city based on faculty and department. The architecture varied depending on the district. The Mage's Association divided mysticism into 12 departments. In other words, this city reflected the specialties of each faculty. The Twelve Faculties were ruled by the Twelve Lords. The majority of the magi studied General Fundamentals and then enter the Faculty that was associated with the lineage. Magi might also enroll in other Faculties as associates to help further his studies in his own Faculty. Also, there was great unity within each dormitory (College). If an outsider stepped into the college, it was not uncommon for interpersonal conflicts to evolve into inter-college wars. If a college of a major Faculty is associated with the Barthomeloi, then it would have it's own private police.
The twelve departments of mysticism included:
- General Fundamentals (全体基礎, Zentai kiso?) is the majority of the magi studied in for about 5 years which included common magical knowledge, sympathetic magecraft, contagious magecraft, leyline studies, and mana studies. It is designated as (I) and the department of Mystile (ミスティール, ?).
- Individual Fundamentals (個体基礎, Kotai kiso?) is designated as (II) and the faculty of Solonea (ソロネア, ?).
- Spiritual Evocation (降霊, Kōrei?) designated as (III) and the faculty of the Eulyphis (ユリフィス, ?) family. Originally the house of Lord Eulyphis manages this faculty until Lord Sophia-Ri took over. Currently Sola-Ui Nuada-Re Sophia-Ri's father is the head of the faculty and his son Bram Nuada-Re Sophia-Ri is his successor of the position. It studies the Magecraft of summoning spiritual beings that work through a spiritual medium such as spiritual surgery (霊媒術, Reibaijutsu?), spiritual possession. Rocco Belfaban is the head of the Department of Summoning. Merem Solomon’s power to create his Great Demon Beasts also falls along these lines.
- Mineralogy (鉱石, Kōseki?), also known as Geology, designated as (IV) and the faculty of Kishur (キシュア, ?). It is the study of mystical properties of mineral substances such as jewels. Luviagelita Edelfelt and Rin Tohsaka are enrolled in this department.
- Zoology (動物, Dōbutsu?) is designated as (V) and the faculty of Chimera (キメラ, ?).
- Anthropology (伝承, Denshō?) is designated as (VI) and the faculty of Burician (ブリシサン, ?).
- Botany (植物, Shokubutsu?) is designated as (VII) and the faculty of Yumina (ユミナ, ?).
- Celestial body (天体, Tentai?) designated as (VIII) and the faculty of the Animusphere (アニムスフィア, ?) family. It was generalized as Astronomy Faculty but it included divisions such as Astrology, Planetology, and Divinity. Aoko Aozaki once studied in this faculty.
- Creation (創造, Sōzō?) is designated as (IX) and the faculty of the Valuay (バリユエ, ?) family. Lord Valuayeta is the head of the Creation department.
- Curse (呪詛, Juso?) is designated as (X) and the faculty of Jigmarie (ジグマリエ, ?).
- Archaeology (考古学, Kōkogaku?) is designated as (XI) and the faculty of Astaire (アステア, ?). It is the Department of Universal Research, broadly studies all worldwide and historical matters. The Eleventh Faculty known as Rocks Road earned their name as the weakness, there's nothing on the streets. Rocks Road was an area distant from the power struggles of the Association, so such danger did not exist. They are a group of pure academics who studied archaeology and nothing else. They were not the kind to arrest trespasser and cause quarrel. Sir Flauros research building was a mansion larger than 200-tsubo, it looked like a small castle. Leiv Uvall is the director of this research building. This is the department where Touko Aozaki, Souren Araya and Cornelius Alba once worked together at.
- Modern Magecraft Theories (現代魔術論, Gendai majutsu-ron?) is designated as (XII) and the faculty of Nowich (ノリッジ, ?). Currently Lord El-Melloi II is the head of the department.
- Although Policies (法政, Hōsei?) was the 13th item and was open to those who wish to pursue politics, it was a social science rather than a discipline in the pursue to mysticism. As a result, it was not included in the Twelve Faculties. Hishiri Adashino is part of this faculty.
- The person of highest position in the Clock Tower, “The Director” has been the same person for the two thousand years since the founding of the Association, and because of this is thought to be something more than human.
- Barthomeloi Lorelei
- Also known as "The Queen" of London's Clock Tower and the Vice director of the Mage's Association.
- Kayneth Archibald El-Melloi
- Instructor in the Department of Spiritual Evocation. Killed in the Fourth Holy Grail War.
- Inolife Valuayeta Atrohorme (イノライ・バリュエレータ・アトロホルム, ?)
- She is also known as Lord Valuayeta (バリュエレータ, ?) and the head of the Creation faculty. She is in the Neutral faction.
- Lord El-Melloi II
- Instructor. Formerly a student to Kayneth and later succeeded him as Lord El-Melloi II. He has produced many excellent disciples. He is the head of the department of Modern Magecraft Theories, it was an unenviable position until he proved how wrong were people's misconception.
- Rocco Belfaban
- Rocco is the head of the Department of Summoning (召喚科学, ?) who held the position for over fifty years in the Mage's Association.
- Bram Nuada-Re Sophia-Ri
- One of the first-class instructors and the successor of the head of the Department of Evocation.
- Feend vor Sembren
- A first-class instructor of the Clock Tower and a Master of Red faction team in the Great Holy Grail War.
The Atlas Academy (アトラス院, Atorasu In?), also known as The Giant’s Pit (巨人の穴倉, Kyojin no Anagura?), is located somewhere among the mountains of Egypt. An institute focused on the study and development of Alchemy, but with members that diverge from the classical view of the alchemist from the Middle Ages and are more worried about the greater truths of the universe. The most independent of the Three Great Branches, it has its own terms of relationship with the Holy Church and other magic organizations. Not surprisingly, these traits cause Atlas to be disliked by the Clock Tower and the Prague Association.
Members of Atlas utilize a method of prediction based on Laplace's Demon. After its first director theoretically predicted the end of the world, the alchemists of Atlas have dedicated themselves into developing methods capable of avoiding it. However, because anything potentially capable of preventing the end of the world might also create even greater devastation, eventually rules dictating that everything created in Atlas must be kept and disposed of within the domains of the organization were established. On that account, the Prague Association has a saying that goes “Lift not the seal of Atlas lest ye wish to not have the world destroyed seven times over”.
Atlas has a number of unique customs for a magic association. One of them is that, at times, the institute has been known to lent its alchemist to other organizations such as the Holy Church, although the particulars of the process dictate that the other party must possess one of the seven special contracts that Atlas has printed in the past. One of the organization's main concerns in the present is the recovery of said contracts. Another custom is for the directors of Atlas to adopt the name of Atlasia during their time in office.
Known members are Satsuki Kurogiri and its current vice-director, Sion Eltnam Atlasia. Seems that most of its members cannot perform Magecraft that goes along the line of nature interference due to the lack of Magic Circuits.
Sea of EstrayEdit
The Sea of Estray, also known as The Wandering Tomb (移動石柩, Idō Sekkan?), an integrated association in Northern Europe. It is a conglomerate of minor organizations of magi that are spread throughout Europe that was originally the original Association that predated the Clock Tower. They have ceased communication with the Association since the Clock Tower became the headquarters. This base is itself a moving mountain range. Normally it is wandering at sea as its name suggests, but sometimes it comes up on dry land. It seems they research mainly body alteration, but the specifics are unknown. Nrvnqsr Chaos was originally a magus affiliated to the Sea of Estray. Among the founders of the Mage Association, there had been many heretical magi who were exiled from the Sea of Estray and the Atlas Institute and had no place left to go. Known institutions among those that compose it are:
- Prague Association (プラハ協会, Puraha Kyōkai?) – An organization that researches on Alchemy, its members follow the traditional precepts of alchemists. Consequentially, they are in bad terms with Atlas.
- Sponheim Abbey (スポンハイム アビー, Suponhaimu Abī?) – An institution that works closely with Clock Tower, Cornelius Alba was supposed to be its next director.
- Thule Society (トゥーレ協会, Toūre Kyōkai?) – A group of magi that study Rune Magecraft, it possesses the original runic scripts.
Average One (五大元素使い, Godaigenso Tsukai?)
User of the Five Great Elements, the title given to those who possess Elemental Affinity to all the five primary elements. Very valued by the Mage’s Association. Includes Tohsaka Rin.
Lord (君主, Kunshu?)
In the Mage Association, no rather, the Clock Tower, there are a number of families that hold sway. They are called Lords and are the objects of fear. There are three major families of Lords and about 20 families of relatives. These families are well-known even in normal society. The history of one family is at shortest 500 years and the longest is over 2000 years. They have been plotting and plotting since a staggeringly long past.
Second Owner (管理者, Kanrisha?)
Supervisor. When the Association entrusts a family of magi with a spiritual land, the current head of said family receives this title and becomes in charge of administrating all supernatural activity within its territory. Once a magus fixes residence in a spiritual land of the Association, he is expected to seek the permission of the Second Owner before setting his workshop. However, just like Kiritsugu Emiya did in Fuyuki, it is possible to remain hidden from the Second Owner depending on how well he performs his job.
Spiritual Land (霊地, Reichi?)
Mystical grounds where strong leylines of Mana can be found, places that increase the power of Magecraft and, in the case of those of top class, where Magic can be activated. The Mage’s Association has the ownership of most of the high quality spiritual lands around the world but, for practical purposes, actual administration of the land is left to a local lineage of magi that is related to the Association. Among the spiritual land of Japan, the one under the care of the Aozaki family is the only location where Magic can be activated. The Fuyuki Grail Wars, however, were created as an excuse to concentrate the necessary amount of magical energy needed to enable activation of magic on the spiritual land of Fuyuki. In the Heaven's Feel route of Fate/stay night, it is successful and the third magic is activated. Although the second magic is also activated in the Heaven's Feel route, it is irrelevant to the spiritual land of Fuyuki, as it uses the Jewel Sword Zelretch.
Wizard Marshal (魔道元帥, Madō Gensui?)
A title given by those who possess a certain degree of military authority within the Association, so far the only known Wizard Marshals are Kischur Zelretch Schweinorg and Barthomeloi Lorelei. Note that while Lorelei is the Wizard Marshal in change of a group of 50 elite magi, she is also the assistant director of Clock Tower.
Workshop (工房, Kōbō?)
The magical laboratory of a magus where he performs his researches and experiments. During its construction, the most important procedure is to prevent the magical energy inside of the workshop from leaking out so its presence can be concealed. Magi usually set up Bounded Fields around their workshops to protect them. Stepping into the workshop of a magus without his permission is seen as an act of open hostility. Referred to in the Aniplex of America translation as an atelier (french for workshop).
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
 Kara no Kyoukai Special Pamphlet - Encyclopedia: Mage's Association [Others], p.039-040 [T]
Mage Association [Others]
A self-defense organization formed by practitioners of magegraft, transcending nationality and genre. (Of course, this is in name only.)
Its mission is to manage, conceal, and develop magecraft.
It reserves the use of force to protect itself from entities that threaten its existence (the Church, other mage organizations, and individuals who hunt what they consider taboo). In order to promote the development (or regression?) of magecraft, the Association set up research institutions and established laws that forbid the criminal use of magecraft.
The headquarter of the Association is in London, England. It is also called the Clock Tower.
The Association is divided into three departments. Besides the Clock Tower, there are also the "Giant's Cellar" in the Atlas mountains in Egypt, and the "Sea of Astray", the integrated association in Northern Europe. The "Sea of Astray" was the original Association that predated the Clock Tower, and had ceased communication with the Association since the Clock Tower became the headquarter.
Also, the Association deems the Magic Foundation of the Middle East and the philosophies of magecraft from the continent* as incompatible with its teachings. Conversely, the other two schools also reject the Association.
Furthermore, as Alba stated in the story, the mage organizations in Japan did not join the Association.
 Character material - Prelude I: The Mages' Association [Organization], p.021
The Mages' Association [Organization]
A self-preservation agency formed by practitioners of magecraft, regardless of nationality or race (of course, in name only).
Its directive was to control, conceal, and further develop magecraft.
The Association had the martial power to protect itself from those who threaten its existence. It also possessed facilities for the further development of magecraft. The Association enforced a set of laws that prevented the criminal use of magecraft.
At the moment, the centre of the Association resided in London.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2
 Fate/complete material III: World material - Theory of Magic - The two great forces in the Thaumaturgy world: Mage's Association, p.051
“Clock Tower”, the Highest Institute of Magic
The Clock Tower, the core of the Association and in fact what could also be said to be the Association itself, is based in the British museum of London. Magi from all over the world gather and devote themselves day and night to the study of magic, while at the same time, are busily tripping over and being tripped over by other factions and competing for power and budget. The organization is anything but harmonious and has a complicated bizarre structure, but the magical research there is without doubt the leading edge.
Below the building, there is the magi’s research area which includes studies and archives. It is only a venerable museum to normal people of course, but at the deepest part, there is a special area (prison?) called the “Bottom of the Bridge” where the Association confines many sealing designated magi deemed to be “dangerous because their talents were too outstanding.” Also, apparently the Gazamy the “Evil Spook”, treated as the number one disaster in the Association, is locked up at the bottom of the London tower.
The person of highest position in the Clock Tower, the “Director” has been the same person for the 2000 years since the founding of the organization, and because of this is thought to be something more than human.
The organization handling patents relating to magic is also the Clock Tower, and the current finances of the Tohsaka family is being by covered by the patent royalties that are being transferred to their account.
Ranks of Magi
A magus is given a “rank” that matches his ability. The highest is said to be Crown (Grand), but details on it are unknown. Note that Lord El-melloi II, lecturer at the Clock Tower who has produced many Grands among his pupils, is stuck in the mediocre “fourth rank” for some reason.
Separate from the normal ranks, color-based titles are given to those that have become special.
The highest are red, blue, and yellow based on the three primary colors. After that, there are the combined colors of orange, purple, green, black, and so on. The further down you go, the less your rank is. Note that there is no rule about only one person for each color. The Association will, without any stinginess, award a color to you if you’re a magus of great stature or one with an unusual talent.
Sealing Designation Enforcers
If you receive a “sealing designation”, you will be confined and even your magic research will be gone, not to mention your freedom. Thus, the person given that designation will of course desperately resist that and won’t stop fighting. To forcefully retrieve magi who were qualified enough to be given a sealing designation, the Association dispatches “Enforcers.” There are around 30 of them total, and Bazett is one of them.
Lords, consuming their time in power struggles
In the Magic Association, no rather, the Clock Tower, there are a number of families that hold sway. They are called Lords and are the objects of fear. There are three major families of Lords and about 20 families of relatives. These families are well-known even in normal society. The history of one family is at shortest 500 years and the longest is over 2000 years. They have been plotting and plotting since a staggeringly long past.
The Sea of Estray, together with the Atlas Institute, is an organization called the original form of the Magic Association.
Among the founders of the Magic Association, there had been many heretical magi who were exiled from the Sea of Estray and the Atlas Institute and had no place left to go.
The base of the Sea of Estray is in Northern Europe. This base, with the nickname of the Moving Stone Coffin, is itself a moving mountain range. Normally it is wandering at sea as its name suggests, but sometimes it comes up on dry land.
It seems they research mainly body alteration, but the specifics are unknown.
*What is an alchemist?
One who studies the flow of matter. That is what an alchemist is. The alchemists of the Clock Tower created products like the homunculi of the Einzbern by merging with western magery.
However, the ultimate goal of the alchemists of the Atlas Institute is set even closer to the original ideology, as the "transformation of events". The often spoke-up "transformation of base metal to gold" in alchemy is, to the members of the Atlas Institute, mere "transformation of matter" and is nothing more than a primitive art far removed from their ideals. Their alchemy is an advancement of the metallurgy of ancient Egypt, the root of the discipline, and has not been influenced by western magery like the alchemy that the Clock Tower magi handle.
 Fate/EXTRA material - Encyclopedia: Atlas Academy [Place name], p.155 [T]
The Atlas Institute [Place name]
The Atlas Institute is an association of Magus and Alchemists based somewhere in Egypt’s Atlas Mountains. It is also known as the Giant’s Pit.
It was formerly one of the three major branches of the Mage’s Association, and it was responsible for measurement and prediction.
It is an institute focused on the study and development of alchemy, but its members broke off from the mainstream modern practice of alchemy that originated in the Middle Ages. Atlas Institute Alchemists are the founders of modern magic practice, and they are more concerned about the greater truths of the universe than mainstream Alchemists.
Unlike most Magus, Atlas Alchemists special abilities were based on a Man+Machine approach. Following their mantra “Faster, Stronger, More Accurate” they treated their bodies as containers to fill and modify in order to develop their abilities.
They possessed great calculation and measurement ability that is rare to manifest naturally in a normal human (and their five senses). It was their belief that humans have evolved to gather information, analyze it and then directly solve any problems perceived.
The correctness of this idea was somewhat proven in the magic-devoid world of Fate/Extra. The Alchemists of Atlas have poor magic circuits, and did not lead their lives relying on magic. As they are Alchemists who did not rely on magic (or to be precise couldn’t rely on magic) even as the decline of magic circuits progressed, they could continue their pursuit and study of magic.
However, after an extended period of time where no children were born to succeed the veteran Atlas Alchemists, their self-determined downfall came about irrespective of the magic circuit decline.
There is not even a single homunculus remaining at Atlas. The last living Atlas Alchemist died of sickness after producing the last homunculus, which lives in a cave somewhere else.
The Atlas Alchemists disappeared, and their research facilities which were built using unknown techniques stretch out in an underground city which is now, more or less, a giant graveyard.
|Bounded Field • Conceptual Weapon • Gradation Air • Magic • (Second Magic • Third Magic • Fifth Magic) • Magical Spells • Marble Phantasm • Mystic Code • Mystic Eyes • Mystic Eyes of Death Perception • Psychic • Reality Marble|
|Demons • Divine Spirit • Doll • Dragon • Familiar (Dragon Tooth Warriors) • Golem • Homunculus • Humans • Magician • Magus • Phantasmal Species • Spirits • Vampire|
|Holy Grail War|
|Command Spells • Great Grail • Heroic Spirit • Holy Grail • Master • Noble Phantasm • Parameter Rules • Servant • Servant classes • Skill|
|Church • Demon Hunter Organization • Mage's Association • The Twenty-seven Dead Apostle Ancestors|
|Akasha • Chants and Incantations • Elements • World • Magic Circuit • Magical Energy • Soul • Magic Crest|