The very basis of the golem can be said to be found in the passage of Genesis reading "The Lord molded man out of the dust of the ground and breathed life into him through his nostrils." Based on this passage, magi attempted to create "humans" in the same way as God created Adam from the earth. The first makers of golems came about in ancient Israel during the period between the 2nd century and the 9th century, creating the basics of their manufacturing. These makers felt that the ideal golem was one that matched the human form, hoping to create one in the same manner as God. Each golem is treated as a fetus, "that which is without shape", and golemancy is treated as the "arcane craft of the Lord to breathe life into Adam and thus mankind." While many practitioners shape the earth into their desired form and bring it to life, they go no further into the craft, that of seeking out the creation of Adam himself. It is the dearest wish of all Kabbalists, one that they do not take lightly. The more perfected a golem is under that ideal, the more it will become an existence removed from their original design.
While those following the Kabbalist ideal think that the quality increases as they reach closer and closer to the human form, other magi simply focus on the task of "how to make a strong golem." The common perception of golems has come to be that of "manmade existences birthed by some thaumaturgical method."
While golems will generally take on a humanoid shape, it is possible to create them in various shapes and varieties, even the shapes of animals.
Golems produced through Kabbalistic techniques are produced from earth, stone, and wood. Following the traditional method, those who use this technique are specialized in making golems close in shape to humans.  An example of this kind of golem would be Jubstacheit von Einzbern.
This Dragon Golem (ドラゴンゴーレム, Doragon Gōremu?) is a man-made monster which resembled a "dragon", that were in legends all over the world. Its entire body which was endowed with overflowing prana, its physical characteristics which resembled a snake, reptile, and bat mixed together, and, its four strong legs that were covered by scales that were equal to heavy metal armour. It is a great beast who has a core which resembles a prana powered nuclear reactor.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2
 Fate/Apocrypha material - Encyclopedia: Golem [Others], p.165-166 [T]
Artificial soldiers made of earth, stone or wood, which Avicebron manufactures. The concept of golems traces back to Ancient Israel, and the basics of their manufacture are said to have arisen sometime between the 2nd to 9th centuries. However, if you trace it back further, golems originate from a passage in Genesis that says “The Lord molded man out of the dust of the ground and breathed life into him through his nostrils”.
In other words, golems were originally an attempt to make “humans”. Therefore, their quality is considered higher the closer they are to being human. However, that is only the ideal golem in Kabbalist thinking, and regular magi might simply devote themselves on “how to make a strong golem”.
Avicebron’s magecraft is fundamentally specialized solely for the sake of making golems, and his techniques have already reached a level that modern magi cannot catch up to, letting him spend his whole life playing around while living off just the sales from his golems. It’s only natural that Roche idolizes him.
To make something close to human is the concept of Avicebron’s golems, but he’s willing to make completely different kinds of golems to amuse himself as well. The steel horse he made to act as Vlad III’s steed was a simple yet prided product of his, and even just the gems used for its eyes were worth hundreds of millions.
After the war, some of his golems actually managed to just barely survive, and though most of them were sold off, a few golems went to a new land with the homunculi.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Fate/Apocrypha - Volume 3
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