Phantasmal Species (幻想種, Gensō Shu?) is the common term used to refer to all non-human creatures that are found in legends and fantasy.
They are born from the thoughts of humans and can only survive in fantasy. Then if it is believed that the subject of a mystery "exists," the World permits its existence and definite affirmation of said belief is not required. Their are also existences desired by the world, but not by humans, and because of this they have gradually gone into hiding and dwindled in numbers. Rather than a classification for a separate ranking for beasts, it encompasses everything from demi-humans, such as fairies and giants, to monsters, such as dragons and oni. They differ from the imaginary Demons, as they are active creatures rather than passive existences. Similarly to how magi gain power through the accumulation of knowledge, those of the Phantasmal Species become stronger through the accumulation of time. Modern Magecraft is the sum of five hundred years of study, whereas the Phantasmal Species date back to the Age of Gods. Magi that only have a mystical lineage that spans five hundred years cannot hope to match or reproduce mysteries that have accumulated thousands of years and have an existence that is on par with the five modern Magics. They embody mysteries simply by existing and it is said to be a miracle if one is simply observed.
Many of the Phantasmal Species fall into the category of Magical Beasts (魔獣, Ma Jū?, "Monstrous Beasts"), which is the common denomination for all creatures that do not fit in the ordinary biological classification for living beings and those that do not fall within the normal ecosystem. The term "beast" is a thaumaturgical term, and it does not necessarily mean quadrupedal mammals. They are true deviations from biology that cannot be explained by immature research or sudden mutations. They can be ranked into three categories, which change as the creatures age and increase in power towards becoming higher existences. The lowest rank is Monstrous Beasts (魔獣, Aku Jū?, Demon Beasts), which then change into Phantasmal Beasts (幻獣, Gen Jū?), and finally become classified as Divine Beasts (神獣, Kami Jū?).
Phantasmal Beasts of the Millennium-Rank (千年クラスの幻獣・聖獣, Chitose Kurasu no Genjū Seijū?) and Divine Beasts are equal to Magic, making them unable to even be harmed by mysteries on the level of magecraft. Rider's Pegasus, which has grown from a Monstrous Beast to a Phantasmal Beast, has even greater resistance than Saber, who can easily negate Caster's magecraft from the Age of Gods. The longer the creatures live, the further away they grow from the rest of the world. Out of the current creatures that still exist in the present era, only those whose ages are measured in centuries, rather than millennia, still remain.
Most remaining Magical Beasts are Chimeras formed from mixing different species that have existed since the Age of Gods. They live on currently undeveloped lands that cannot be reached by mankind. Those on the level of Phantasmal Beasts that existed in the past have almost all migrated to a different world presented as the “Other Side of the World”. Divine Beasts such as Moby Dick and Typhon are more on the level of "super weapons" than actual living creatures. Members of the The Twenty-seven Dead Apostle Ancestors, like Primate Murder, a white dog born with the sole purpose of killing humans, and the Forest of Einnashe, a sentient forest that matured to the level of a phantasm specie by absorbing the blood of a Dead Apostle, also count among the Magical Beasts.
Chimera (キメラ, Kimera?, Chimaera) are creatures of the Monstrous Beast rank that make up the majority of the Magical Beasts still left within the world. They are formed from mixing different species that have existed since the Age of Gods, and they live on currently undeveloped lands that cannot be reached by mankind.
Synthetic Beast (合成獣, Gōsei Jū?) is a process that artificially creates chimera. It is controlled by its master in the “Zoology” animal department of the Mage's Association. Gransurg Blackmore can be considered to be in this category. The Wolf was created with the purpose of being used catalyst to summon a Servant in the False Holy Grail War. In the Seventh Labyrinth of Caubac Alcatraz, there is a magical mechanism that changes humans into Chimera monster. For example, there is a chimera with a body like a lion and a tail like a snake, which resembled a magical beast that exists in Greek Myths.
Divine Bull (神牛, Kami Ushi?), also called God Bull: Air-walking Thunder Bull (飛蹄雷牛, Hi Hidzume Kaminari Ushi?), is the name for the creatures of the Divine Beast rank that pull Gordius Wheel. Before the seduction of Europa, the supreme god of thunder, Zeus, changed his shape into that of a bull. Due to that, what manifested as the driving force of the chariot dedicated to Zeus were Divine Beasts with a connection to him. Due to the chariot being claimed by Rider before it could be offered to Zeus, they became part of his Noble Phantasm, and he refers to them as the "Children of Zeus."
- Main article: Dragon
The Gorgon (ゴルゴン, Gorugon?) is Medusa's form as the legendary one-eyed man-eating monster after she started to kill and devour humans. Becoming an icon of terror, her appearance was distorted, and as wishes initially formed the Gorgon sisters, they also turned her into the atrocious Gorgon of legend. Even as a Heroic Spirit and Divine Spirit, she still has the rank of "Monster ∙ Magical Beast", making her existence that of “an anti-hero closer to a monster.” As a result, the rank of her Divinity decreased to the lowest value of E-. As compensation, she received the ability of Monsters and Magical Beasts, Monstrous Strength, which would bring her closer to the form of the Gorgon the more it was used. After her death, her role as a Gorgon would be decreasing mankind's numbers.
Harpies (妖鳥, Yōchō?) are avarice-filled flying beasts who are known for possessing cruel habits and a cowardly nature, unable to keep from being easily led astray by their appetite. While not suited to be used as soldiers, Semiramis combines them with her Dragon Tooth Warriors to create flying warriors.
Hydra (ヒュドラー, Hyudorā?) are serpents with nine heads. Heracles is said to have battled an immortal hydra which would grow back its heads no matter how many times they were cut down. He utilized Nine Lives to simultaneously annihilate one hundred heads with a bow in order to slay it. They breathe a potent poison, and their entire bodies are filled with it. Simply standing near an adult one will make a human's lungs begin to rot. Even a deceased juvenile is great enough to harm someone with direct contact, and though not enough to kill a Servant, could still prove harmful to one. Being poisoned was not enough to kill a Divine Spirit like Chiron, but the constant pain was enough to make him give up his Divinity and immortality to cease his torment.
Rocco Belfaban owns a juvenile Hydra preserved in formalin, a small snake with its head split in nine. It is a one-of-a-kind item in the entire world according to Kairi Sisigou, and even one-third of its selling price would surpass his house's combined estate. He is able to process it into a potent poison for use in the Great Holy Grail War.
The Hippogriff (ヒポグリフ, Hipogurifu?) is a phantasmal horse born from the union of a griffin and a mare. This magical beast is something that should not have been possible to have been spawned between them, having the upper body of an eagle and the lower body of a horse. Astolfo claims that it boasts great speed, and part of its abilities are hidden.
Kelpie (ケルピー, Kerupī?), also known as Each-uisge (アハ・イシュケ, Aha Ishuke?) is classified as Monstrous beast rank by Magi. In Gaelic, it is translated as “Water Horse”. The man-eating beast which was a water demon, is said to devour the flesh of girls. It is a beast that appeared in a part Britain's northern islands. It has an appearance resembled a large pale horse and it's tail was shaped like a fish's fin. A water demon which strode and ran freely on the water's surface. The Monstrous beast can change its four-legged form, into a winged “Boobrie: Water Bird (水の鳥, Mizu no Tori?)” shape.
Pegasus (天馬, Tenba?) are winged horses that usually are part of the Monstrous Beast rank. They are docile creatures that do not like to fight. The Pegasus summoned by Rider is a special case that has advanced to the Phantasmal Beast rank due to its age. It has been alive since the Age of Gods, and now possesses a defensive power on the same level as a dragon and Magic Resistance far greater than that of Saber. The buffets from a Pegasus's wings are capable of generating massive shock waves, which raze infrastructure and lacerate the bodies of living beings. Due to its naturally kind nature, Rider has to use Bellerophon to force it to fight.
Unicorns (一角馬, Ikkakuba?) are creatures with the power to purify human souls. The Seventh Holy Scripture was made from the horn of a dead unicorn that had turned into a nature spirit. Nrvnqsr Chaos has one stored inside of his Reality Marble as one of his stronger creatures.
Vorpal Bunny (殺人兎, Satsujin Usagi?) are creatures part of the Phantasmal beast species.
Demi-Human (亜人, Ajin?) is the general term used for the likes of fairies, dwarves, and giants.
Fairies (妖精, Yōsei?) are extensions of the planet, nature's sense of touch, that cannot be seen by normal humans, and they lack any sort of human values. There are some fairies born wearing humans' imagination as shells. There are various different types, including those that have the power to interfere with people’s memories, and others that are known to be able of crafting Noble Phantasm-level artifacts, with Arondight, Avalon, Excalibur, Gae Buidhe serving as examples. Such artifacts are engraved with Fairy letters (妖精文字, Yōsei Moji?), one of the lost languages, to show they were not crafted by human hands and belong to those of another world.
Fairies are usually entities that cannot be seen by normal humans, however those who evolve into a magnitude where they can be perceived by people become Elementals and elemental-class incarnation becomes possible. True Ancestors who are, classified as a type of large fairy, would fall into the category of an incarnated elemental. The Foundation of fairies and Elementals are of a Mystery that cannot be reached through magecraft.
The fairies in Kara no Kyoukai are not true fairies, but rather lower-class spirits shaped after the image of woodland fairies. They are much weaker in terms of raw power, but wield a portion of the original fairies' powers due to wearing fairy-like shells.
Succubus (サキュバス, Sakyubasu?) are female demons who can drain a man's semen in order to increase their magical energy and to retain their eternal youth. They also have the abilities to regenerate themselves, to manipulate dreams, and to enhance their strength. Len, who was originally a familiar, acquired the ability of a succubus to drain people of their magical energy by manipuliating their dreams. Her more selfish and outspoken TATARI version, White Len, also possesses this ability. There are also descendants like Natalia Kaminski from the original succubi species.
Werewolves (ウェアウルフ, Weaurufu?) are introduced in Mahou Tsukai no Yoru. They are descended from a golden werewolf, and their society has been declining ever since. The golden werewolf represented the peak of their strength, but not one has been born since then. The current highest rank is silver-fur, and they generally act as the leaders. The live in the mountains away from civilization, and it is rare for their females to get pregnant. One village came upon Lugh Beowulf in the eighteenth century, and became extremely excited that he would bring about their revival. It eventually turned out that he was not a normal werewolf because he never aged and had the ability to transform into anything he wishes. When they found he has no desire to breed, they eventually sold him to Touko Aozaki.
Transcendent Kind (超越種, Chōetsu Shu?, Exceeding Species) refers specifically to terminals separated and given form from the will of the World as a defense against the resource-plundering actions of humans. Examples of such include Elementals, Divine Spirits, Oni Kind, True Ancestors, and Dragon Kind. Despite being anti-human in origin, the Counter Force of Alaya does not target these supernatural entities, as they are extensions of the world and mediators of nature before being enemies of humanity.
In a broader meaning, Transcendent Kind refers to sentient species whose very existence occurs on a different scale from humanity. The Dead Apostles qualify as "Transcendent Kind" under this definition. Strictly speaking, however, the narrow definition explained above is more accurate; and per its criterion, Dead Apostles would merely be "self-described" as Trancendents.
Blood-sucking species (吸血種, Kyūketsu Shu?) is the general term for creatures that drink the blood of others and organisms that consume the blood of their own kind. Most of the Blood-sucking species is weak against sunlight, Dead Apostles being representatives derived from mankind. The Forest of Einnashe is a special exception as a subspecies of the Blood-sucking species. People like Akiha are also classified as members of the blood-sucking species. Medusa is classified as a member of the blood-sucking species because the most efficient way for her to gain magical energy is to drink blood.
The term was originally synonymous with Vampires, but it has changed due to the Church's involvement. Although both Dead Apostles and True Ancestors are considered blood-sucking creatures like the blood-drinking animals of South America or disembodied vampiric heads from the continent, the Church only sees those they classify as vampires as enemies. They will actively hunt vampires, but do not care about other members of the blood-sucking species. Due to the large number of blood-sucking creatures found all over the world, this term is utilized when referring to those not classified as vampires.
Blood Worms (吸血虫, Kyūketsu Chū?) are the creatures that have come to make up the body of Zouken Matou in his attempt to prolong his life. His existence is essentially a conglomerate of Crest Worms with a special appetite for human flesh and blood that combine themselves to take a human form. Despite the blood-sucking habits, he is not considered to be an actual vampire that the Church would hunt.
The Oni Kind (鬼種, Oni Shu?) are born from nature as "demons", unrelated to Demons, that are symbolized by inferno and scorching heat. They declined as human civilization advanced, and are now all but extinct.
In the past of Japan, many families wanted to crossbreed with these creatures. This resulted in the present clans of half-breeds, such as the Tohno and the Kishima. The relationship between the half-breeds and the oni is not unlike that between the Dead Apostles and the True Ancestors. Both the oni and the half-breeds have been in conflict with the Demon Hunter Organization for quite some time.
Those with thick blood are often overwhelmed by their blood with Inversion Impulses, and those that maximize the blood are called Crimson Red Vermillion (紅赤朱, Kurenai Seki Shu?). Also known as Ancestry Return, they are enveloped by an illusion-like fog, and the person won't be able to return to humanity. Having a thick demon blood, Akiha Tohno has an high chance of becoming one. When her hair turns red, she is about to become one, but she's barely controlling herself and keeping a balance between the human's blood and demon's blood. The only other known Crimson Red Vermillion is Kouma. 
- ↑ 1.0 1.1
 Fate/complete material III: World Material - Theory of Magic - Magecraft: Magical Beasts, p.046
An umbrella term that encompasses all beasts that do not fall within the normal ecosystem. In this context, “beast” is a thaumaturgical term, and does not necessarily mean quadrupedal mammals. Magical Beasts cannot be explained by immature research or sudden mutations. They are true deviations from biology. Roughly Magical Beasts can be classified into Monstrous Beasts -> Phantasmal Beasts -> Divine Beasts in ascending order towards higher existence.
Most Magical Beasts have existed since the Age of Gods, and are Chimeras formed from mixing different species. They live on currently undeveloped lands that cannot be reached by mankind. Furthermore, Phantasmal Beasts that have existed in the past have almost all migrated to a different world presented as the “Inside of the World”.
Although classified as a Monstrous Beast, the Pegasus that Rider mounted in the story is an existence closer to that of a Phantasmal Beast due to surviving over a very long period of time. Also worth mentioning is that, Phantasmal Beasts that have survived over thousands of years are on the same tier as True Magic, thus rendering mysteries on the level of sorcery completely ineffective against them.
- The Pinnacle of Phantasmal Species – Dragons
Dragons, or Magical Beasts similar to Dragons, have members in all classes of Magical Beasts (Monstrous, Phantasmal, and Divine Beasts). Dragons are always thought to be the greatest species within their corresponding classes. Because there are dragons of the Monstrous, Phantasmal, and Divine classes, they have been involved with mankind since before the Age of Gods. They have also left many legends in the field of thaumaturgy.
- A Heroic Spirit with a Rank in Monster ∙ Magical Beast
Because Rider’s true identity is Medusa, she possesses a rank of Monster ∙ Magical Beast. As a result, the rank of her Divinity decreased to the lowest value of E-. As compensation, she received the ability of Monsters and Magical Beasts, Monstrous Strength.
Rider is more of a Divine Spirit than a Heroic Spirit. Yet, it is better to call her “an anti-hero closer to a monster” instead of a Divine Spirit. Because she possesses a rank as a monster, Rider is very incompatible with Servants who fought off monsters in their tales.
- The Pinnacle of Phantasmal Species – Dragons
 Fate/side material - Encyclopedia: Magical Beast [Others], p.073
Magical Beast [Others]
In the world of Fate/stay night, a general term for beasts which do not correspond to normal ecosystems.
They are divided into three ranks: monstrous, mythical, and divine.
The vast majority of monstrous beasts are crossbreeds (chimera) living in still-uncivilized regions, but it seems that those of mythical rank and above have shifted to the far side of the world.
Though the Pegasus that appears in the story is a monstrous beast, its long life puts it at the level of a mythical beast. Ordinary magi are completely unable to compete with something of this rank.
Also, beings that take after dragons are considered to be superior, regardless of classification. Since dragons are endowed with the characteristics of several species, it appears that even consorting with humans was not uncommon.
 Fate/complete material III: World material - FAQ with Nasu: Miscellaneous, p.136
Q: There's three ranks for magic beasts, but what's the most famous of the Divine Beasts, the greatest of those?
Q: There's three ranks for magic beasts, but what's the most famous of the Divine Beasts, the greatest of those? Dragons are special beings with the alignments of the three types, but are there any currently existing dragons that can interfere with the real world in the world of Fate?
A: Moby Dick and Typhon? Divine beasts like those are more super weaponish than living beings I suppose.
 Fate/Zero - Volume 4: God Bull: Air-walking Thunder Bull
God Bull: Air-walking Thunder Bull
The divine bulls that pull the Gordias Wheel. It is said that before the seduction of Europa, the supreme god of thunder Zeus changed his shape into that of a bull. Therefore, what manifested as the driving force of the chariot dedicated to Zeus, were Divine Beasts with a connection to Zeus.
- ↑ Fate/Labyrinth - Act 2 translation
 Kara no Kyoukai Special Pamphlet - Encyclopedia: Faeries [Others]
Ouji Misaya's Familiars.
Originally, Faeries are considered the nature's sense of touch, something that humans cannot perceive.
However, there are indeed some Faeries who were born wearing humans' imagination as shells.
Ouji Misaya's Familiars are false Faeries. They are formless low-rank Spirits possessing the image of woodland Faeries.
They can indeed wield a portion of the original Faeries' powers due to wearing Faerie-like shells.
The Faerie-disguises are thought to be the creation of Misaya's Master rather than hers.
As an aside, true Faeries at the scale of capable of being perceived by humans are called Elementals. A certain white vampire seemed to be of this class.
One more thing, the Foundation of Faeries and Elementals are of a Mystery that cannot be reached through magecraft.
- ↑ Tsukihime Laboratory
 Tsukihime Dokuhon PlusPeriod - talk. Glossary: Blood-Sucking species [Term], p.193
Blood-Sucking species [Term]
A general term used to describe organisms that consume the blood of their own kind.
Einnashe was a special exception as a subspecies of Blood-suckers.
Most of the Blood-suckers were weak against sunlight, but there were indeed Blood-suckers who were only active during the day.
The Dead Apostle of Tsukihime were representative of the Blood-suckers. They were Blood-suckers derived from mankind.
 Fate/Side Material - Encyclopedia: Rider [Servant], p.077
Heroic Spirit of the mount. A type of Servant that requires high maneuverability, and tends to possess strong Noble Phantasms.
The Rider in the story is no exception, riding Pegasus and making full use of its charging power in battle.
Of course, Rider herself is also a unique Heroic Spirit, and the number of skills and Noble Phantasms she has is particularly high even amongst the Servants.
She is taciturn and lacks self-assertiveness, but that doesn't mean she is apathetic toward her surroundings. Rather, she's the kind of person that worries about things from every conceivable angle but hides it behind a perfect poker face.
Though parts of her personality are quite similar to Sakura's, Sakura is a commoner while Rider is more of a high-born type. Even her demeanor and tone of speech have a sort of high-class strictness to them.
With the complex she has about her own height and the way she gets embarrassed when people see her mystic eyes, she might actually be pretty lady-like.
Because of her outward appearance and primary weapon, a lot of people thought she was going to be an Assassin class Servant before the game came out, but nope, she's a Rider!
I really wanted to have a scene in the Sakura route where she and Saber bickered with each other as they fought toward a common goal, but unfortunately the story didn't develop in that direction and I had to discard the idea.
Incidentally, the lewd dream on the fifth day of the Sakura route was Rider's doing.
She is not a Dead Apostle (vampire), but she is a bloodsucker. For her, the most efficient, luscious way of gaining magical energy is drinking blood.
 Tsukihime Dokuhon PlusPeriod - TSUKIHIME Dictionary: Blood-sucking species [Term], p.178
Blood-sucking species [Term]
A general term for those that suck the blood of other living creatures.
Dead Apostles and True Ancestors both fall under this classification. Although the terms vampire and bloodsucker were confusingly used to mean different things in Tsukihime itself, you can pretty much think of them as synonymous.
Creatures that suck blood are found all over the world, and they all have different characteristics. Because of that, the term bloodsucker is used as a catch-all term to describe them. In that sense, even Akiha would be considered a bloodsucker.
Moreover, the Church concerns itself with the hunting of vampires specifically. That is, Dead Apostles and True Ancestors. Accordingly, they don't really care about things like the bloodsucking animals of South America, or the vampiric flying heads of mainland China.
Good news, eh, Akiha?
 Tsukihime Dokuhon PlusPeriod - TSUKIHIME Dictionary: Crimson Red Vermilion [Term], p.178
Crimson Red Vermilion [Term]
The name for when those with inhuman heritage have drawn out their sleeping blood to the maximum possible extent. Once they reach this state, they are wreathed in a mirage-like haze and can never return to being human.
The name Crimson Red Vermilion is unique to the families ruled over by the Tohno household. Elsewhere, it is known as Ancestral Return.
As one with particularly tainted blood, the possibility that Akiha will become a Crimson Red Vermilion is high.
In Tsukihime, when her hair turned deep crimson, she was on the verge of this, though somehow she managed to bring her human and oni blood under control. Of course, rather than returning to how she was before, it's more accurate to say she switched to her "human" self while remaining close to the state Crimson Red Vermilion.
 Melty Blood Act Cadenza PS2 Manual - Dictionary: Crimson Red Vermillion [Term], p.057
Crimson Red Vermillion [Term]
Crimson Red Vermillion.
The name for when those with inhuman heritage have drawn out their sleeping blood to the maximum possible extent.
The name Crimson Red Vermillion is unique to the families ruled over by the Tohno household. Elsewhere, it is known as Ancestral Return.
As one with particularly tainted blood, the possibility that Akiha will become a Crimson Red Vermillion is high.
You can catch a glimpse of this during Tohno Akiha and Kishima Kouma's Arc Drives. Also, though Kouma is the closest to attaining it at the current stage, Akiha is actually the one with more aptitude for it.
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